Thursday, May 21, 2020

The History of Early and Modern Screws and Screwdrivers

A screw is any shaft with a corkscrew-shaped groove formed on its surface. Screws are used to fasten two objects together. A screwdriver is a tool for driving (turning) screws; screwdrivers have a tip that fits into the head of a screw. Early Screws Around the first century CE, screw-shaped tools became common, however, historians do not know who invented the first. Early screws were made from wood and were used in wine presses, olive oil presses, and for pressing clothes. Metal screws and nuts used to fasten two objects together first appeared in the fifteenth century. In 1770, English instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden (1735–1800) invented the first satisfactory screw-cutting lathe, and went on to inspire other inventors. In 1797, Englishman Henry Maudslay (1771–1831) invented a large screw-cutting lathe that made it possible to mass-produce accurately sized screws. In 1798, American machinist David Wilkinson (1771–1652) also invented machinery for the mass production of threaded metal screws. Robertson Screw In 1908, square-drive screws were invented by Canadian P. L. Robertson (1879–1951), 28 years before Henry Phillips patented his Phillips head screws, which are also square-drive screws. The Robertson screw is considered the first recess-drive type fastener practical for production usage. The design became a North American standard, as published in the Industrial Fasteners Institute Book of Fastener Standards. A square-drive head on a screw is an improvement over the slot head because the screwdriver will not slip out of the screws head during installation. The early 20th century Model T car made by the Ford Motor Company (one of Robertsons first customers) used over seven hundred Robertson screws. Phillips Head Screw and Other Improvements In the early 1930s, the Phillips head screw was invented by Oregon businessman Henry Phillips (1889–1958). Automobile manufacturers now used car assembly lines. They needed screws that could take greater torque and could provide tighter fastenings. The Phillips head screw was compatible with the automated screwdrivers used in an assembly line. A hexagonal or hex screw head has a hexagonal hole turned by an Allen key. An Allen key (or Allen wrench) is a hexagonally shaped turning tool (wrench), was first produced by William G. Allen of the Allen Manufacturing Company in Connecticut; who patented it first debatable. In 1744, the flat-bladed bit for the carpenters brace was invented, the precursor to the first simple screwdriver. Handheld screwdrivers first appeared after 1800. Types of Screws Myriad types of screws have been invented to perform specific tasks. A cap screw has a convex head, usually hexagonal, designed to be driven by a spanner or wrench.The wood  screw has a tapered shaft allowing it to penetrate the undrilled  wood.The machine screw has a cylindrical shaft and fits into a nut or a tapped hole, a small bolt.The self-tapping  screw has a cylindrical shaft and a sharp thread that cuts its own hole, often used in sheet metal or plastic.A drywall screw is a specialized self-tapping screw with a cylindrical shaft that has proved to have uses far beyond its original application.The set screw has no head at all and is designed to be inserted flush with or below the surface of the work piece.The double-ended  screw is a wood-screw with two pointed ends and no head. It is used for making hidden joints between two pieces of wood. Shapes of Screw Head Pan head: disc with a chamfered outer edgeCheesehead: disc with a cylindrical  outer edgeCountersunk: conical, with flat outer face and tapering inner face allowing it to sink into the material, very common for wood screwsButton or dome head screw: flat inner face and hemispherical outer faceMirror screw head: countersunk head with a tapped hole to receive a separate screw-in chrome-plated cover; used for attaching mirrors Types of Screw Drive A variety of tools  exists  to drive screws into the material to be fixed. The hand tools used to drive slot-headed and cross-headed screws  are  called screwdrivers. A power tool that does the same job is a power screwdriver. The hand-tool for driving cap screws and other types is called a spanner (U.K. usage) or wrench (U.S. usage). Slot head screws are driven by a flat-bladed screwdriver.Cross-head or Phillips screws have an X-shaped slot and are driven by a cross-head screwdriver, designed originally in the 1930s for use with mechanical screwing machines, intentionally made so the driver will ride out, or cam out, under strain to prevent over-tightening.The Pozidriv is an improved Phillips head screw, and it has its own screwdriver, similar to cross-head but with better resistance to slipping, or cam-out.Hexagonal or hex screw heads have a hexagonal hole and are driven by a hexagonal wrench, sometimes called an Allen  key or a power tool with a hexagonal bit.Robertson drive head screws have a square hole and are driven by a special power-tool bit or screwdriver (this is a low-cost version of the hex head for domestic use).Torx head screws have a splined socket and receive a driver with a splined shaft.Tamper-proof  Torxs drive sockets have a projection to prevent a standard  Torx  driver being inserted .Tri-Wing screws were used by Nintendo on its  Gameboys, and dont have a driver associated with them, which has discouraged even minor home repairs to the units. Nuts Nuts are square, round, or hexagonal metal blocks with a screw thread on the inside. Nuts help fasten objects together and are used with screws or bolts.   Sources and Further Information Industrial Fasteners Institute. IFI Book of Fastener Standards. 10th ed. Independence OH: Industrial Fasteners Institute, 2018.  Rybczynski, Witold. One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw. New York: Scribner, 2000.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Segmentation and Target Market - 1581 Words

Segmentation and Target Market: Elio Motors Tina M Miller MKT 571 August 18, 2014 Jason Leonard Segmentation and Target Market: Elio Motors Introduction Paul Elio is the engineer and company CEO of an American startup automaker founded in 2008: Elio Motors. Production is slated to begin in early 2015 in Shreveport, Louisiana. The design of the vehicle has three wheels with all the standard convinces of a four wheeled vehicle. The selling points of this vehicle is that 90% of the parts used to produce the vehicle are American made, 84 mpg, and a projected manufacture suggested retail price of only $6,800. This paper will discuss the target market, market segmentation, and company strategy and branding. Market Segmentation The†¦show more content†¦The marketing strategy will set the tone and direction of the advertising through tone, style, and themes that included messages. Elio has prototypes that have been traveling across North America to stir up the interest of the target market. This visual presence has allowed Elio to take pre-orders and create public interest. It has also allowed Elio to educate the market about the product. The advertising position for Elio is product differentiation and lifestyle. The differences that stand out is the initial cost and the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. It also is positioned as a vehicle that meets the commuter lifestyle. It is not meant to replace existing family vehicles, only as an addition to the family fleet as a daily commuter. Elio’s primary market is the commuters. Company Strategy and Marketing Decisions Elio’s business strategy is well conceived. As stated by VP of Sales Jerome Vassallo, â€Å"As a commuter, 93 percent of the time you’re in a car by yourself. You’d drive a small car like this to and from the office and leave a larger vehicle parked back home in the driveway for when you need to carry additional passengers or have more cargo room† (Elio Motor: How it all Began, n.d.). 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Nursing and Diploma Program Free Essays

A registered nurse is a licensed professional with a four-year nursing degree. Able to provide all levels of nursing care including the administration of medication. The job description of a registered nurse is to work to promote good health and prevent illness. We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing and Diploma Program or any similar topic only for you Order Now They educate patients and the public about various medical conditions; treat patients and help in their rehabilitation; and provide advice and emotional support to patients’ families. RNs use considerable judgment in providing a wide variety of services. They also develop the day-to-day nursing care plans both in hospital, and for care after discharge by families and visiting nurses. Advanced nursing practice is defined as the performance of advanced level nursing practice activities which, by virtue of post-basic education and experience, are appropriate to and may be performed by an advanced practice registered nurse My career goals are to maintain a comfortable salary to support my family in the future, and be able to afford the things I need and want throughout life and to live happy and comfortable. â€Å"Registered Nursesâ€Å" 2). Nursing is not necessarily an easy occupation to get into, there are certain requirements and qualifications. One of the most popular forms of education for registered nurses is an associate degree in nursing which takes about two years to complete. Other RN candidates may opt for a hospital diploma program where they take thirty to sixty hours worth of science classes and then take many more hours of classes which are heavily focused on nursing. The diploma program usually takes a minimum of three years. A diploma program meets the basic educational requirements to be a registered nurse. Another option is for the prospective RN to get a Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing from a university. Once a BSN degree is earned, it gives the person the opportunity to pursue higher education opportunities in his or her field such as a Master’s Degree or a PhD. The registered nurse educational requirements can vary from state to state as each state has its own laws and policies that govern the nursing profession. However, all registered nurses most take some sort of licensing exam in order to become legally able to practice in the registered nursing profession. While 2-3 years of training is required, it is possible to make a good living from the salary that you can earn as a registered nurse. But be aware that the profession can be stressful. Some of the most stressful nursing positions are those in hospitals, particularly in the emergency rooms. Some less stressful jobs may include working in private practice where the hours will not be as long. There are many ways to advance in the medical career. In order to be a nurse you must start at the bottom and work your way to the top. Some jobs that share the same training or similar training of a registered nurse are nurse-practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, and midwives. The duties of a nurse practitioner include conducting physical exams; diagnosing and treating common illnesses and injuries; providing immunizations; managing high blood pressure, diabetes, and other chronic problems. Clinical nurses duties are to provide care in specialty areas, such as cardiac, oncology (cancer), pediatrics, and psychiatric/mental health. They work in hospitals and clinics, providing medical care and mental health services, developing quality assurance procedures, and serving as educators and consultants. Last but not least, a midwives’ duties are to provide routine health care for women, but their practices are focused on pregnancy and delivery of babies. They lead classes in childbirth, sibling preparation, and care of newborns. If pregnancies continue without complications, nurse-midwives provide all prenatal care, assist mothers during labor, and deliver the babies. Following the births, they make sure that mothers and newborns are well and provide follow-up care. If emergencies occur, nurse-midwives are trained to provide assistance until doctors arrive. All of these occupations in the medical field are just an example to show you the similarities in these careers. (â€Å"Requirements of registered nursingâ€Å"1). When people are considering a career, they often ask questions. Such as; Can I support a family on my salary? , Can I buy a house? , and can I pay for my kids college? A registered nurses salary starts around $56,225 and ends at $68,251. After conducting research I have come to the conclusion that you can indeed afford a small home or nice apartment on a registered nurses salary. You can also afford a used car or afford to have low monthly payment on a vehicle. However, you cannot pay for a child’s college and afford bills without extra help. (â€Å"Salary Wizard†3). In order for me to meet my goals in the medical field, I must be focused. First I must work hard to receive good grades in high school, especially in science and math. I must maintain a great attitude and never give up in order to reach my goals in life. After graduating high school I will enroll in the New Horizons School Of Adult Education. There I will get my LPN license. I will be attending that school for 36 months. After graduating the LPN program I will put in applications in the hospital for LPN’s. Then while I am starting out my career then I will go to school for Registered Nurses. ? ? ? ? ? ? Kayla Foster Gold 6 5/9/2010 English 12 How to cite Nursing and Diploma Program, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Training and Development the Skills of Employees

Olaniyan and Ojom (2008) opine that growth in organizations can be achieved by training and developing the skills of employees. They continue to explain that training provides employees with skills which are necessary to perform their duties. This is achieved by improving the skills of employees, and shaping the skills of new recruits to match the needs of the organization.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Training and Development the Skills of Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, it is worth mentioning that training and development improves the efficiency and effectiveness of employees when performing various tasks in an organization. It has also been noted that the work of managers is reduced when employees are trained because the employees require no supervision (Olaniyan Ojom 2008). El-Tannir (2002) supports the findings of Olaniyan and Ojon (2008) by explaining further that continuous t raining improves the performance of employees at the workplace. El-Tannir (2002) explains that the introduction of technology allows organizations to train and develop the skills of their employees at the workplace. This helps reduce the time wasted when employees train and work from different stations. The author is of the opinion that training and development is particularly valuable to modern organizations because it helps employees solve problems experienced at the workplace (El-Tannir 2002). It is also evident that training and development is hugely beneficial in an organization because it improves employee retention. Arms (2002) support the aspect of training and development by saying that it reduces risks in an organization. In addition, training and development improves the skills of employees, and the products developed match the needs of consumers. As such, the consumers gather confidence in an organization, and sales improve. Ultimately, an organization makes profits when the sales increase (Arms 2002). According to Arms (2002), there are nine benefits accrued when an organization is involved in the training and development. These include: improved productivity, better quality of the products manufactured, and that employees are empowered to introduce innovative strategies in an organization. In addition, training and development crates teamwork in an organization; aligns the skills of employees to meet organization al goals, and employees develop their professional careers at the workplace. It is also evident that organizational risks are reduced, and the liability of the organization is minimized (Arms 2002).Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theories provided by the previous writers are supported by a research conducted by Babaita in 2010. The research involved a case study of the Nigerian banks and the main objective was to determin e whether training and development improves the productivity of employees. The survey conducted both qualitative and quantitative analysis of data to support the hypothesis. The population of the study was employees of 25 commercial banks in the country. The sample was selected, and 2 new generation and 2 old generation banks were selected. Questionnaires were used in collecting data from the employees of the sampled banks. The findings of the research showed that productivity of employees improves when training and development is applied. The author recommended that all employees, including the senor management, as well as the junior employees, should be training continuously. It was also proposed that the training programs should be aligned to the goals of the organization. This would increase the effectiveness and efficiency in achieving the objectives of an organization (Babaita 2010). Therefore, the findings of the authors support the hypothesis that training and development ar e tremendously powerful in improving the performance of employees in an organization. Reference List Arms, D 2002, Effective Learning and Development Programs are Crucial. Strategic Finance, pp. 16-18. Babaita,I S 2010, Productivity as a Driving Force for Investment in Training and Management Development in the Banking Industry, European Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 13. No. 2. pp. 278-290. El-Tannir, A A 2002,†The corporate university model for continuous learning, training and development†, Education + Training, vol. 44. No. 2. pp. 76-81Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Training and Development the Skills of Employees specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Olaniyan, D A Ojom L. B 2008, Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness. European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 24. No. 3. pp.326-331. This proposal on Training and Development the Skills of Employees was written and submitted by user Kelsey Buckley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Wiz essays

The Wiz essays In this very updated version of the well beloved childrens classic The Wizard of Oz, movie watchers are transported to a world of music, neat special effects, eye-popping costumes, and a fantastic retelling of the tale of the wonderful wizard of Oz. The Wiz is one of the best African American musicals ever made because it has a great cast of actors and actresses, it has hidden symbolism that relates to African American life, and the choice of music adds power to its message. This musical depicts the struggle of black life through song and rhythm, two aspects of African American culture. It is a remake of The Wizard of Oz with the same story, same characters, and an added twist of soul. The cast of The Wiz is composed of many talented people. Legendary soul mega star Diana Ross plays the 34-year old kindergarten teacher better known as Dorothy. Diana Ross is known for her many songs as well as her career as the lead singer of the trio The Supremes. The King of Pop, Michael Jackson plays the part of the brain needy Scarecrow. His dancing skills and smooth voice bring this character to life. Lena Horne, jazz songstress extraordinare, plays Glinda the Good. Horne is one of the greatest jazz singers of this era. Nipsey Russell, one of the 70s blaxploitation actors, plays the part of the Tinman. Comedian Richard Pryor plays the Wiz. His comical actions give life to this character. Quincy Jones, one of the well-known songwriters of his time, co-wrote the movies soundtrack, along with Nick Ashford and Valerie Simpson, husband and wife soul duo. This collaboration of acting and musical talent makes The Wiz a magical experience of story and song. African American culture is defined within the underlying themes of this musical. For example, the name of the Lion is Fleetwood Coupe de Ville, whi...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Sample College Admissions Essay on Teaching Summer Camp

Sample College Admissions Essay on Teaching Summer Camp Many college applicants have had summer camp experiences. In this Common Application essay, Max discusses his challenging relationship with a difficult student who ends up having a lot to contribute.   The Essay Prompt Maxs essay was originally written for the pre-2013 Common Application essay prompt that states,  Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you, and describe that influence.  The influential person option no longer exists, but there are many ways to write about an important person with the current seven essay options on the 2018-19 Common Application. Maxs essay has recently been revised to fit the new 650-word length limit of the current Common Application, and it would work nicely with the 2018-19 prompt #2:  The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? The essay would also work well with Common Application essay option #5,  Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. Max's Common Application Essay Student Teacher Anthony was neither a leader nor a role model. In fact, his teachers and his parents were constantly chastising him because he was disruptive, ate too much, and had a hard time staying focused. I met Anthony when I was a counselor at a local summer camp. The counselors had the usual duties of keeping kids from smoking, drowning, and killing each other. We made God’s eyes, friendship bracelets, collages, and other clichà ©s. We rode horses, sailed boats, and hunted snipe. Each counselor also had to teach a three-week course that was supposed to be a little more â€Å"academic† than the usual camp fare. I created a class called â€Å"Things that Fly.† I met with fifteen students for an hour a day as we designed, built, and flew kites, model rockets, and balsawood airplanes. Anthony signed up for my class. He was not a strong student. He had been kept back a year at his school, and he was larger and louder than the other middle school kids. He talked out of turn and lost interest when others were talking. In my class, Anthony got some good laughs when he smashed his kite and threw the pieces into the wind. His rocket never made it to the launch pad because he crumpled it in a fit of frustration when a fin fell off. In the final week, when we were making airplanes, Anthony surprised me when he drew a sketch of a sweep-wing jet and told me he wanted to make a â€Å"really cool plane.† Like many of Anthony’s teachers, and perhaps even his parents, I had largely given up on him. Now he suddenly showed a spark of interest. I didn’t think the interest would last, but I helped Anthony get started on a scale blueprint for his plane. I worked one-on-one with Anthony and had him use his project to demonstrate to his classmates how to cut, glue and mount the balsawood framework. When the frames were complete, we covered them with tissue paper. We mounted propellers and rubber bands. Anthony, with all his thumbs, created something that looked a bit like his original drawing despite some wrinkles and extra glue. Our first test flight saw Anthony’s plane nose-dive straight into the ground. His plane had a lot of wing area in the back and too much weight in the front. I expected Anthony to grind his plane into the earth with his boot. He didn’t. He wanted to make his creation work. The class returned to the classroom to make adjustments, and Anthony added some big flaps to the wings. Our second test flight surprised the whole class. As many of the planes stalled, twisted, and nose-dived, Anthony’s flew straight out from the hillside and landed gently a good 50 yards away. I’m not writing about Anthony to suggest that I was a good teacher. I wasn’t. In fact, I had quickly dismissed Anthony like many of his teachers before me. At best, I had viewed him as a distraction in my class, and I felt my job was to keep him from sabotaging the experience for the other students. Anthony’s ultimate success was a result of his own motivation, not my instruction. Anthony’s success wasn’t just his plane. He had succeeded in making me aware of my own failures. Here was a student who was never taken seriously and had developed a bunch of behavioral issues as a result. I never stopped to look for his potential, discover his interests, or get to know the kid beneath the facade. I had grossly underestimated Anthony, and I am grateful that he was able to disillusion me. I like to think that I’m an open-minded, liberal, and non-judgmental person. Anthony taught me that I’m not there yet. Critique of Max's Common Application Essay In general, Max has written a strong essay for the Common Application, but it does take a few risks. Below youll find a discussion of the essays strengths and weaknesses. The Topic Essays on important or influential people can quickly become predictable and clichà © when they focus on  the typical heroes of high school students: a parent, a brother or sister, a coach, a teacher. From the first sentence, we know that Maxs essay is going to be different: Anthony was neither a leader nor a role model. Maxs strategy is a good one, and the admissions folks who read the essay will most likely be pleased to read an essay that isnt about how Dad is the greatest role model or Coach is the greatest mentor. Also, essays on influential people often conclude with the writers explaining how theyve become a better people or owe all of their success to the mentor. Max takes the idea in a different direction - Anthony has made Max realize that he isnt as good of a person as he had thought, that he still has much to learn. The humility and self-critique is refreshing. The Title Theres no one rule for writing a winning essay title, but Maxs title is perhaps a little too clever. Student Teacher immediately suggests a student who is teaching (something that Max is doing in his narrative), but the true meaning is that Maxs student taught him an important lesson. Thus, both Anthony and Max are student teachers. However, that double meaning is not apparent until after one has read the essay. The title by itself does not immediately grab our attention, nor does it clearly tell use what the essay will be about. The Tone For the most part, Max maintains a pretty serious tone throughout the essay. The first paragraph does have a nice touch in the way that it pokes fun at all the clichà © activities that are typical of summer camp. The real strength of the essay, however, is that Max manages the tone to avoid sounding like he is bragging about his accomplishments. The self-criticism of the essays conclusion may seem like a risk, but it arguably works to Maxs advantage. The admissions counselors know that no student is perfect, so Maxs awareness of his own short-comings will probably be interpreted as a sign of maturity, not as red flag highlighting a defect in character. The Essay Length At 631 words, Maxs essay is at the upper end of the Common Application length requirement  of 250 to 650 words. This is not a bad thing. If a college is requesting an essay, it is because the admissions folks want to get to know the applicant better. They can learn more from you with a 600-word essay than with a 300-word essay. You may encounter counselors who argue that admissions officers are extremely busy, so shorter is always better. This little evidence to support such a claim, and youll find very few applicants to top-tier colleges (such as the Ivy League schools) being admitted with essays that dont take advantage of the space allowed. The ideal essay length is certainly subjective and depends in part on the applicant and the story being narrated, but Maxs essay length is absolutely fine.  This is particularly true because the prose is never wordy, flowery, or excessive. The sentences tend to be short and clear, so the overall reading experience isnt labored. The Writing The opening sentence grabs our attention because it isnt what we expect from an essay. The conclusion is also pleasingly surprising. Many students would be tempted to make themselves the hero of the essay and state what a profound impact they had on Anthony. Max turns it around, highlights his own failures, and gives the credit to Anthony. The balance of the essay isnt perfect. Maxs essay spends far more time describing Anthony than it does describing Anthonys influence. Ideally, Max could cut a couple sentences from the middle of the essay and then develop a little further the two short concluding paragraphs. Final Thoughts Maxs essay, like  Felicitys essay, takes some risks. Its possible an admissions officer would judge Max negatively for exposing his biases. But this is unlikely. In the end, Max presents himself as someone who is a leader (he is designing and teaching a class, after all) and as someone who is aware that he still has much to learn. These are qualities that should be attractive to most college admissions folks. After all, colleges want to admit students who are eager to learn and who have the self-awareness to recognize that they have room for a lot more personal growth.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Virtual and Social Media of Wikis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Virtual and Social Media of Wikis - Essay Example Wikis are hosted by a third party, and is largely popular for people who like to browse, input comments on certain topics and share information through simple means. The creation of wikis mainly caters to an audience who want to have a chance to interact with particular web contents. People practice virtual and social media communication by accessing wikis. Wikis are made to help people come to know about things he has the least knowledge about. It also empowers viewers to remove from the site they are viewing topics which they consider off. People interact with each other by sharing information, comments, and suggestions through this software. People then get the chance to add on to their knowledge, but also develop their interactive skills when accessing Wikis. On a personal level, wikis enhance communication and interaction among web fanatics. On a business level, wikis enable companies to develop networks which consequently simplify work and increase productivity. Businesses gain inputs from viewers while getting important messages across the targeted group, giving them a chance to successfully market their products, services or even ideas. Bigger companies use Wikis to collaborate with clients and manage production on major projects. Wikis, as in any other technology, has its strengths and downsides. One of its strengths lies in the fact that it serves its purpose very well, it is very engaging and it never fails to trigger participation from the target audience. Information written on the web may be altered or modified by anyone. It is useful as well as easy to use; it is not structured or prohibiting. It enhances interaction and gives the audience the enjoyment of participating in information sharing. Wikis are also very flexible. It bends according to the needs of the user.